1Sam 1:1 CMTY Noting that these four books (I Samuel, II Samuel, I Kings, II Kings) are actually one big book, a history of the nation of Israel written from the viewpoint of the captives in Babylon, we see that the author chose to begin this history with the story of the childless woman Hannah. The symbolism may be one of hope. Just as the seemingly hopeless Hannah was finally granted her desire, so the captives in Babylon may one day be granted freedom by God.
1Sam 1:2 He had two wives; one was called Hannah and the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none.
1Sam 1:3 Year after year this man went up from his town to worship and sacrifice to the LORD Almighty at Shiloh, where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli, were priests of the LORD.
1Sam 1:3 CMTY Shiloh is a city in Ephraim and temporary home of the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle, the place where Samuel grew up; this was a worship center long before Jerusalem.
1Sam 1:4 Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice, he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters.
1Sam 1:5 But to Hannah he gave a double portion because he loved her, and the LORD had closed her womb.
1Sam 1:6 And because the LORD had closed her womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her.
1Sam 1:7 This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the LORD, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat.
1Sam 1:7 CMTY Note that the worship place in Shiloh is called "the house of the Lord," giving it equal status with the temple in Jerusalem.
1Sam 1:8 Elkanah her husband would say to her, "Hannah, why are you weeping? Why don't you eat? Why are you downhearted? Don't I mean more to you than ten sons?"
1Sam 1:9 Once when they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh, Hannah stood up. Now Eli the priest was sitting on a chair by the doorpost of the LORD's temple.
1Sam 1:10 In bitterness of soul Hannah wept much and prayed to the LORD.
1Sam 1:11 And she made a vow, saying, "O LORD Almighty, if you will only look upon your servant's misery and remember me, and not forget your servant but give her a son, then I will give him to the LORD for all the days of his life, and no razor will ever be used on his head."
1Sam 1:12 As she kept on praying to the LORD, Eli observed her mouth.
1Sam 1:13 Hannah was praying in her heart, and her lips were moving but her voice was not heard. Eli thought she was drunk
1Sam 1:14 and said to her, "How long will you keep on getting drunk? Get rid of your wine."
1Sam 1:15 "Not so, my lord," Hannah replied, "I am a woman who is deeply troubled. I have not been drinking wine or beer; I was pouring out my soul to the LORD.
1Sam 1:15 CMTY The Hebrew noun can be translated as either "beer" or "strong drink".
1Sam 1:16 Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; I have been praying here out of my great anguish and grief."
1Sam 1:17 Eli answered, "Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant you what you have asked of him."
1Sam 1:18 She said, "May your servant find favor in your eyes." Then she went her way and ate something, and her face was no longer downcast.
1Sam 1:18 CMTY The idiom to "find grace" or "find favor" is used approximately 42 times in the Hebrew Scriptures in this form (cf. GENE 50:4).
1Sam 1:19 Early the next morning they arose and worshiped before the LORD and then went back to their home at Ramah. Elkanah lay with Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her.
1Sam 1:20 So in the course of time Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son. She named him Samuel, saying, "Because I asked the LORD for him."
1Sam 1:21 When the man Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the annual sacrifice to the LORD and to fulfill his vow,
1Sam 1:22 Hannah did not go. She said to her husband, "After the boy is weaned, I will take him and present him before the LORD, and he will live there always."
1Sam 1:23 "Do what seems best to you," Elkanah her husband told her. "Stay here until you have weaned him; only may the LORD make good his word." So the woman stayed at home and nursed her son until she had weaned him.
1Sam 1:24 After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the LORD at Shiloh.
1Sam 1:25 When they had slaughtered the bull, they brought the boy to Eli,
1Sam 1:26 and she said to him, "As surely as you live, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the LORD.
1Sam 1:27 I prayed for this child, and the LORD has granted me what I asked of him.
1Sam 1:28 So now I give him to the LORD. For his whole life he will be given over to the LORD." And he worshiped the LORD there.
1Sam 2:1 Then Hannah prayed and said:
"My heart rejoices in the LORD;
in the LORD my horn is lifted high.
My mouth boasts over my enemies,
for I delight in your deliverance.
1Sam 2:1 CMTY The "salvation" in this verse is the Hebrew Word "yeshua," which is also the name of Jesus. This is a most direct reference to Jesus as Messiah.
1Sam 2:2 "There is no one holy like the LORD;
there is no one besides you;
there is no Rock like our God.
1Sam 2:3 "Do not keep talking so proudly
or let your mouth speak such arrogance,
for the LORD is a God who knows,
and by him deeds are weighed.
1Sam 2:4 "The bows of the warriors are broken,
but those who stumbled are armed with strength.
1Sam 2:5 Those who were full hire themselves out for food,
but those who were hungry hunger no more.
She who was barren has borne seven children,
but she who has had many sons pines away.
1Sam 2:6 "The LORD brings death and makes alive;
he brings down to the grave and raises up.
1Sam 2:7 The LORD sends poverty and wealth;
he humbles and he exalts.
1Sam 2:7 CMTY No trial reaches us apart from God's explicit decree and specific permission.
1Sam 2:8 He raises the poor from the dust
and lifts the needy from the ash heap;
he seats them with princes
and has them inherit a throne of honor.
"For the foundations of the earth are the LORD's;
upon them he has set the world.
1Sam 2:9 He will guard the feet of his saints,
but the wicked will be silenced in darkness.
"It is not by strength that one prevails;
1Sam 2:10 those who oppose the LORD will be shattered.
He will thunder against them from heaven;
the LORD will judge the ends of the earth.
"He will give strength to his king
and exalt the horn of his anointed."
1Sam 2:10 CMTY The word used here for "annointed" is "messiah."
1Sam 2:11 Then Elkanah went home to Ramah, but the boy ministered before the LORD under Eli the priest.
1Sam 2:12 Eli's sons were wicked men; they had no regard for the LORD.
1Sam 2:12 CMTY The sons of Eli certainly knew about God, but they did not know Him. A personal relation to God is essential; one receives blessings from a person whom one knows, not from a person about whom one knows.
1Sam 2:13 Now it was the practice of the priests with the people that whenever anyone offered a sacrifice and while the meat was being boiled, the servant of the priest would come with a three-pronged fork in his hand.
1Sam 2:14 He would plunge it into the pan or kettle or caldron or pot, and the priest would take for himself whatever the fork brought up. This is how they treated all the Israelites who came to Shiloh.
1Sam 2:15 But even before the fat was burned, the servant of the priest would come and say to the man who was sacrificing, "Give the priest some meat to roast; he won't accept boiled meat from you, but only raw."
1Sam 2:16 If the man said to him, "Let the fat be burned up first, and then take whatever you want," the servant would then answer, "No, hand it over now; if you don't, I'll take it by force."
1Sam 2:17 This sin of the young men was very great in the LORD's sight, for they were treating the LORD's offering with contempt.
1Sam 2:18 But Samuel was ministering before the LORD - a boy wearing a linen ephod.
1Sam 2:19 Each year his mother made him a little robe and took it to him when she went up with her husband to offer the annual sacrifice.
1Sam 2:20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife, saying, "May the LORD give you children by this woman to take the place of the one she prayed for and gave to the LORD." Then they would go home.
1Sam 2:21 And the LORD was gracious to Hannah; she conceived and gave birth to three sons and two daughters. Meanwhile, the boy Samuel grew up in the presence of the LORD.
1Sam 2:22 Now Eli, who was very old, heard about everything his sons were doing to all Israel and how they slept with the women who served at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.
1Sam 2:22 CMTY Several Hebrew words are used for "tabernacle". The one used here means "tent" quite literally.
1Sam 2:23 So he said to them, "Why do you do such things? I hear from all the people about these wicked deeds of yours.
1Sam 2:24 No, my sons; it is not a good report that I hear spreading among the LORD's people.
1Sam 2:25 If a man sins against another man, God may mediate for him; but if a man sins against the LORD, who will intercede for him?" His sons, however, did not listen to their father's rebuke, for it was the LORD's will to put them to death.
1Sam 2:25 CMTY God oversees people's wicked actions. No sin happens that He doesn't deliberately allow. He is not the source of people's evil deeds, for He despises sin. God never tempts anyone (cf. JAME 1:13). He steers the sin already in their hearts so that sinners unwittingly fulfill His plans and not merely their own. He accomplishes this by infinite wisdom beyond our grasp.
1Sam 2:26 And the boy Samuel continued to grow in stature and in favor with the LORD and with men.
1Sam 2:27 Now a man of God came to Eli and said to him, "This is what the LORD says: 'Did I not clearly reveal myself to your father's house when they were in Egypt under Pharaoh?
1Sam 2:28 I chose your father out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to go up to my altar, to burn incense, and to wear an ephod in my presence. I also gave your father's house all the offerings made with fire by the Israelites.
1Sam 2:29 Why do you scorn my sacrifice and offering that I prescribed for my dwelling? Why do you honor your sons more than me by fattening yourselves on the choice parts of every offering made by my people Israel?'
1Sam 2:30 "Therefore the LORD, the God of Israel, declares: 'I promised that your house and your father's house would minister before me forever.' But now the LORD declares: 'Far be it from me! Those who honor me I will honor, but those who despise me will be disdained.
1Sam 2:31 The time is coming when I will cut short your strength and the strength of your father's house, so that there will not be an old man in your family line
1Sam 2:32 and you will see distress in my dwelling. Although good will be done to Israel, in your family line there will never be an old man.
1Sam 2:33 Every one of you that I do not cut off from my altar will be spared only to blind your eyes with tears and to grieve your heart, and all your descendants will die in the prime of life.
1Sam 2:34 "'And what happens to your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, will be a sign to you - they will both die on the same day.
1Sam 2:35 I will raise up for myself a faithful priest, who will do according to what is in my heart and mind. I will firmly establish his house, and he will minister before my anointed one always.
1Sam 2:35 CMTY The word used here for "annointed" is "messiah."
1Sam 2:36 Then everyone left in your family line will come and bow down before him for a piece of silver and a crust of bread and plead, "Appoint me to some priestly office so I can have food to eat."'"
1Sam 3:1 The boy Samuel ministered before the LORD under Eli. In those days the word of the LORD was rare; there were not many visions.
1Sam 3:2 One night Eli, whose eyes were becoming so weak that he could barely see, was lying down in his usual place.
1Sam 3:3 The lamp of God had not yet gone out, and Samuel was lying down in the temple of the LORD, where the ark of God was.
1Sam 3:4 Then the LORD called Samuel.
Samuel answered, "Here I am."
1Sam 3:5 And he ran to Eli and said, "Here I am; you called me."
But Eli said, "I did not call; go back and lie down." So he went and lay down.
1Sam 3:6 Again the LORD called, "Samuel!" And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, "Here I am; you called me."
"My son," Eli said, "I did not call; go back and lie down."
1Sam 3:7 Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD: The word of the LORD had not yet been revealed to him.
1Sam 3:8 The LORD called Samuel a third time, and Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, "Here I am; you called me."
Then Eli realized that the LORD was calling the boy.
1Sam 3:9 So Eli told Samuel, "Go and lie down, and if he calls you, say, 'Speak, LORD, for your servant is listening.'" So Samuel went and lay down in his place.
1Sam 3:10 The LORD came and stood there, calling as at the other times, "Samuel! Samuel!"
Then Samuel said, "Speak, for your servant is listening."
1Sam 3:11 And the LORD said to Samuel: "See, I am about to do something in Israel that will make the ears of everyone who hears of it tingle.
1Sam 3:12 At that time I will carry out against Eli everything I spoke against his family - from beginning to end.
1Sam 3:13 For I told him that I would judge his family forever because of the sin he knew about; his sons made themselves contemptible, and he failed to restrain them.
1Sam 3:14 Therefore, I swore to the house of Eli, 'The guilt of Eli's house will never be atoned for by sacrifice or offering.'"
1Sam 3:15 Samuel lay down until morning and then opened the doors of the house of the LORD. He was afraid to tell Eli the vision,
1Sam 3:16 but Eli called him and said, "Samuel, my son."
Samuel answered, "Here I am."
1Sam 3:17 "What was it he said to you?" Eli asked. "Do not hide it from me. May God deal with you, be it ever so severely, if you hide from me anything he told you."
1Sam 3:18 So Samuel told him everything, hiding nothing from him. Then Eli said, "He is the LORD; let him do what is good in his eyes."
1Sam 3:19 The LORD was with Samuel as he grew up, and he let none of his words fall to the ground.
1Sam 3:20 And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba recognized that Samuel was attested as a prophet of the LORD.
1Sam 3:21 The LORD continued to appear at Shiloh, and there he revealed himself to Samuel through his word.
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